EU officials have said there is currently no basis for “meaningful discussions” with the UK over Brexit.
One negotiator said: “We are back where we were three years ago.”
Diplomats from the other 27 EU member states were told on Monday that a no-deal scenario could only be avoided by making substantial changes to the plan on the table – which they could not accept.
Downing Street said the EU “needed to change its stance”.
A spokesperson said: “We will throw ourselves into the negotiations with the greatest energy and the spirit of friendship and we hope the EU will rethink its current refusal to make any changes to the Withdrawal Agreement.”
The UK is currently set to leave the EU on 31 October, with or without a deal.
The plan negotiated between the EU and former Prime Minister Theresa May was voted down by MPs three times.
The new Prime Minister, Boris Johnson, has pledged to “do or die”, and leave by the deadline – even if it means without an agreement.
BBC Brussels reporter Adam Fleming said the meeting between the officials and diplomats was a debrief from discussions last week between the EU, UK Brexit Secretary Steve Barclay and Mr Johnson’s European envoy, David Frost.
Mr Frost reiterated the prime minister’s stance that the backstop element of Mrs May’s plan – which aims to prevent a hard border returning between Ireland and Northern Ireland – had to be abolished.
The backstop – agreed by Mrs May in November 2018 – would see Northern Ireland staying aligned to some rules of the EU single market.
Mr Frost also said Mr Johnson’s new ministers were not bound by commitments made by the previous government.
One of the EU’s Brexit negotiators told the meeting that the G7 summit in France at the end of August could mark the point where it became clear a no-deal Brexit was inevitable.
But a diplomat at the meeting told Adam Fleming the comments simply reflected the speech Mr Johnson gave in the Commons the day after he became prime minister.
No reason to get back round the table
The EU is not optimistic about any agreement with the UK.
The message they are getting from Boris Johnson’s team is that the UK is not going to sign another deal unless it involves getting rid of the backstop.
But the EU has been clear time and time again that it isn’t going to do that – the backstop is an integral part of any withdrawal agreement and it has to stay.
So the conclusion of officials is there is no reason to get back round the table at the moment, for the simple reason that they don’t think they can meet the conditions Boris Johnson has set.
There are a couple of months to try and eke something out from one of the sides – to see if somebody blinks and there is some room for negotiation either in Brussels or in London.
But at the moment, many people think the direction of travel is heading towards a no-deal Brexit.
The meeting follows an interview with Health Secretary Matt Hancock, who said Parliament could no longer block the UK from leaving the EU without a deal.
In a no-deal scenario, the UK would immediately leave the EU with no agreement about the “divorce” process, and would exit overnight from the single market and customs union.
Opponents say a no-deal exit would damage the economy and lead to border posts between Northern Ireland and the Republic. Other politicians argue any disruption could be quickly overcome.
Mr Hancock said MPs had a chance to stop the outcome a number of times in recent weeks, but had failed to vote it through.
But prominent pro-EU Conservative Dominic Grieve said there were still a number of options available to MPs to block a no-deal – including bringing down the government with a vote of no confidence, and setting up a new government in its place.