For the first time since Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 was shot down in July 2014, prosecutors have announced charges against suspects in the case.
Three Russians and a Ukrainian have been charged with bringing a missile into the area in eastern Ukraine and with murdering 298 passengers and crew.
Passenger flight MH17 was en route from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur when it was shot down over conflict-hit Ukraine.
A court case will begin in the Netherlands on 9 March 2020.
International arrest warrants have been issued for the four men.
The Dutch-led joint investigation team (JIT) named the men as Igor Girkin, Sergei Dubinsky and Oleg Pulatov from Russia, as well as Ukrainian Leonid Kharchenko.
The JIT, which seeks to try the suspects under Dutch law, previously said it had a “long list” of persons of interest and appealed again for witnesses as the investigation continues.
Speaking ahead of Wednesday’s announcement, Silene Fredriksz, who lost her son Bryce, said that in the five years since, some relatives had died not knowing the truth.
“We all get older… I hope that I will know the truth before I close my eyes.”
Who are the suspects?
The most prominent of the four is Igor Girkin (also known as Strelkov), a former colonel in Russia’s FSB intelligence service, according to prosecutors. He was given the minister of defence title in the rebel-held eastern Ukrainian city of Donetsk.
He is believed to be the highest military officer in the area who was in direct contact with the Russian Federation. In a statement Mr Girkin said: “I can only say that militia did not shoot down the Boeing.”
The others charged are:
- Sergei Dubinsky (known as Khmury), who was employed by Russia’s GRU military intelligence agency, was a deputy of Mr Girkin and was in regular contact with Russia, according to prosecutors
- Oleg Pulatov, known as Giurza, a former soldier of GRU special forces and deputy head of the intelligence service in Donetsk, the JIT says
- Ukrainian national Leonid Kharchenko who has no military background but led a combat unit as a commander in Eastern Ukraine, according to prosecutors
“The JIT suspects Girkin, Dubinsky, Pulatov and Kharchenko of having played a significant role in the death of 298 innocent civilians,” said prosecutor Fred Westerbeke.
“The means of evidence these suspicions are based on will be elaborated on during the criminal proceedings, then the judge will pass sentence. The suspects are innocent until the contrary is proven in court.”
He added that investigators had “evidence showing that Russia provided the missile launcher”.
Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov earlier told the BBC Russia had been given “no chance to take part” in the official investigation.
Asked whether Russia would hand any suspects over for trial, he said Moscow’s position was “very well known” but declined to comment further.
What is known about flight MH17?
The passenger jet left Amsterdam’s Schiphol Airport at 10:15 GMT on 17 July 2014 and was due to arrive at Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia the following day.
A few hours after take-off, the plane lost contact with air traffic control about 50km (30 miles) from the Russia-Ukraine border.
The plane crashed in the Donetsk area, in territory controlled by Russian-backed separatists. Parts of the wreckage were found distributed over an area of about 50 sq km (19 square miles).
In October 2015, the Dutch Safety Board concluded the plane had been hit by a Buk missile, causing it to break apart in mid-air.
The JIT – which includes officials from the Netherlands, Australia, Belgium, Malaysia and Ukraine – concluded in May 2018 that the missile system had belonged to the 53rd Anti-Aircraft Missile brigade, based in the western Russian city of Kursk. It produced evidence that it said proved how the missile system had reached eastern Ukraine.
Russia responded by denying any of its anti-aircraft missile systems had ever crossed the Ukrainian border. Its foreign ministry has accused the JIT investigation of being “biased and politically motivated”.
A total of 283 passengers, including 80 children, and 15 crew members were killed on the flight.
Delays and difficulties in the recovery of victims’ remains prompted widespread international criticism.